Vertigo Causes and Treatment



What is Vertigo?

The word “Vertigo'' originates from the Latin language Verto. It means to roam. Vertigo is a feeling of spinning or a feeling of imbalance. The patient suffers from this when there is dizziness or imbalance.

This imbalance can cause nausea, vomiting, excessive sweating, or a feeling of unsteadiness in walking. Dizziness may increase when the head is moved or shaken.

Vertigo is a common complaint about doctors in all fields and can affect people of all age groups. In reality, 20 to 40 percent of people suffer from vertigo at some point in their lives, of which 15 percent have diabetes.

Vertigo is a symptom of a disorder in the body, it is not a disease. Vertigo can be due to many reasons, such as – BPPV, Meniere’s disease, vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis, acoustic neuroma, otolith dysfunction, vestibular migraine, central vestibulopathy, or psychogenic disorders. Vertigo can be diagnosed and cured with the right treatment. All these diseases have different presentations and different treatment methods. The patient can get permanent benefits only after proper diagnosis and proper treatment.

What is Vertigo?

Symptoms of Vertigo

Patients with vertigo can describe their symptoms in this way:-

  • Headspin

  • Lean-to one side

  • Headache

  • Feeling unsteady or unbalanced.

  • Feeling of falling

  • Dizziness

Some symptoms can be found along with dizziness in the patient of Vertigo, such as - Hearing loss, ringing in the ears, or headache.

Causes of Vertigo

  • Meniere's disease: These are due to diseases of the inner part of the ear, due to which the hearing ability of the patient is affected. It causes sounds in the ear dizziness for a few hours. It is caused by the pressure of the fluid flowing in the inner ear. If not treated in time, ménire's disease can lead to hearing loss. Ménire's disease usually affects one ear, but it can affect both ears in 15% of cases. It can be treated with dietary changes and medications, and in advanced cases, intratympanic gentamicin injection or surgery is required.

  • Vestibular neuritis: Vestibular neuritis is an infection of the nerve. Vertigo in these patients usually lasts from hours to several days. With timely diagnosis and starting exercise, the ability to balance can be made normal.

  • Otolith Disorders: In this disease, the patient has a feeling of imbalance or difficulty in standing upright. Otolith disorders are diagnosed by subjective visual vertical test and VEMP (Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Testing) test. It is treated with medication to reduce the sensitivity of the nervous system to a specific rehabilitation program for otolith disorders.

  • Vestibular Migraine: Vestibular migraines are one of the most common causes. Headache and dizziness are very common which are common symptoms in all age groups. It is important to determine whether the two symptoms are associated or independent of each other or caused by a migraine.
    These patients usually do not have hearing problems and often cannot tolerate loud sounds or bright light. Treatment is controlled by lifestyle changes, dietary changes, and medicines. Treatment usually takes several months.

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) : Such vertigo usually occurs on sleeping and changing sides, which is due to the accumulation of calcium carbonate debris in the inner ear veins. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) occurs most commonly in elderly patients, after a head injury, after prolonged bed rest, and due to an inner ear infection. Vertigo is usually diagnosed with a video nystagmus graphics test, and it is treated only after observing the condition of the particles trapped in the inner ear.

 Symptoms of Vertigo

  • Labyrinthitis: This disease is caused by a bacterial infection of the balance vein, causing severe vertigo or heaviness of the ear with the sudden loss of hearing in one ear, hearing loss, ringing in the ear, and a few days of vertigo. Symptoms of this disease are labyrinthitis. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent hearing loss. Imbalance and dizziness are treated with special types of exercises.

  • Perilymph fistula: It is caused by abnormal contact between the fluid in the inner ear and the air in the outer ear. Inner ear fluid perilymph fluid leaks out of the middle ear and flows into the middle ear, causing hearing loss, a feeling of heaviness in the ear, and dizziness. These symptoms worsen with coughing, sneezing, and lifting heavyweights.

    Fistulas are most commonly caused by sudden changes in pressure while driving, in flight, or during childbirth, although the most common trauma occurs when lifting heavyweights. Its diagnosis is dependent on the patient's history. It is diagnosed by vestibular examination and symptoms. For the treatment, correction of perilymph fistula is done by telescopic operation. After the operation, the patient has to take bed rest for a few days.

  • Vestibular Paroxysmia: This is due to the pressure of the balance nerve inside the bone. In this, there is a feeling of sharp vertigo and imbalance in short intervals. Spontaneous nystagmus with hyperventilation has been highly recommended for the diagnosis of vestibular paroxysms.

    In addition, 95% of the condition can be diagnosed with an MRI. This disease has to be differentiated from a seizure disorder. Initially, medical management can be done with carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. If adequate control with medications is not possible, surgical microvascular decompression of the vestibular nerve may be performed. This allows the balance vein to be released from pressure.

  • Mal Debarquement Syndrome (MDDS): Mal Debarquement syndrome (MDDS) is an unusual condition in which the patient feels like walking on a boat or walking on foam. This usually happens after a long boat trip or a long flight. However, it is not necessary that this situation should happen only after the journey. Sitting in a car or driving a car reduces the symptoms of this disease temporarily. This disease is more prevalent in women than in men. These patients benefit from optokinetic visual stimulation and inclusion in a specialized rehabilitation program.

  • Acoustic Neuroma: The acoustic neuroma occurs as a tumor in the balance vein, causing symptoms of increased instability, hearing loss in one ear, and ringing in the ear. This tumor usually grows slowly. It is diagnosed by audiological tests such as pure tone audiometry and ABR, vestibular test, and MRI.

    So, now that you need the reasons behind vertigo, you get to approach us at ASP Cares. With the special expertise of our doctors, we can help to treat your vertigo. You can consult your doctor for more information about this at ASP Cares, who can guide you with the best available treatment.

Causes of Vertigo
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